Biased Ligands. Better Drugs.

About Moderate-to-Severe Acute Pain

In 2014, there were approximately 48 million visits to US hospitals during which a patient received an injectable opioid.(1) Over 22 million of these claims were for surgical cases.

Despite the development and widespread adoption of guidelines for the multimodal management of postoperative pain and the extensive use of current treatments, significant unmet need remains. In a recent national survey of surgical patients in the United States, 86% of patients experienced pain after surgery, with 74% still experiencing pain after discharge.(2)

Conventional mu-opioid agonists, such as morphine and fentanyl, are still the most efficacious class of injectable analgesics available for moderate-to-severe acute postoperative and medical pain, but their effective dosing is limited by side effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, nausea and vomiting.(3,4,5) There is significant unmet need in the hospital and outpatient surgical settings for a highly efficacious, rapidly acting injectable analgesic with a wider safety and tolerability window to improve the way that moderate-to-severe acute pain is managed.


1. IMS Charge Detail Master hospital claims database 2014
2. Gan et al, Incidence, patient satisfaction, and perceptions of post-surgical pain: results from a US national survey, Current Medical Research & Opinion 2013, 1–12.
3. Cashman and Dolin, Respiratory and hemodynamic effects of acute postoperative pain management; BJA 93 (2): 212–23 (2004).
4. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Guidelines on Monitoring for Opioid-induced Sedation and Respiratory Depression, PMN, Vol 12, No.3;2 011.
5. Gan et al, Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting, Anesth. Analg. 2014;118(1):85-113

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