In 2017, there were 45 million in-patient hospital stays and outpatient hospital visits where pain was treated with an injectable opioid.(1)
Despite the availability of non-opioid options for pain management, high doses of IV opioids are still required for millions of hospital patients in order to facilitate their recovery and reduce the likelihood of their acute pain evolving into chronic pain. Conventional IV opioids, such as morphine, hydromorphone, and fentanyl, are still considered to be the most effective injectable analgesics available for managing moderate-to-severe acute pain in the hospital. However, use of these products is limited by adverse effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, and vomiting.(2,3,4) There remains a significant unmet need in the hospital setting for new injectable opioid analgesic options for patients. The unmet need is particularly high in patients with comorbidities that elevate their risk of developing opioid-related adverse effects (ORAEs) and/or who are undergoing specific procedures where ORAEs can compromise recovery.
1. IMS Charge Detail Master hospital claims database 2017
2. Cashman and Dolin, Respiratory and hemodynamic effects of acute postoperative pain management; BJA 93 (2): 212–23 (2004).
3. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Guidelines on Monitoring for Opioid-induced Sedation and Respiratory Depression, PMN, Vol 12, No.3; 2011.
4. Gan et al, Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting, Anesth. Analg. 2014;118(1):85-113
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