Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the ASC and Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, of FASB. The Company’s functional currency is the U.S. dollar.

The financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments that are considered necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s balance sheets as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, its results of operations and its comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, its statement of stockholders’ equity for the period from January 1, 2019 to September 30, 2019 and for the period January 1, 2018 to September 30, 2018, and its statements of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018. The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10‑Q should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and accompanying notes included in the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2018. Since the date of those financial statements, there have been no changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies. The financial data and other information disclosed in these notes related to the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2019, any other interim periods, or any future year or period.


The Company adopted ASU 2016‑02, Leases (Topic 842), and all applicable amendments as of January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach. The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in long-term right-of-use assets and current and long-term lease liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. Right-of-use assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rates, which are the rates incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The right-of-use assets are tested for impairment according to ASC 360. See Note 6 for details. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; we recognize lease expense for these immaterial leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. 

The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are accounted for as a single lease component under the practical expedient provisions of the standard. Lease payments, which may include lease and non-lease components, are included in the measurement of the Company’s lease liabilities to the extent that such payments are either fixed amounts or variable amounts that depend on a rate or index as stipulated in the lease contract.    


In accordance with FASB’s ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that the Company determines are within the scope of ASC 606, it performs the following five steps:


identify the contract(s) with a customer;


identify the performance obligations in the contract;


determine the transaction price;


allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and


recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

The Company applies the five-step model to contracts when it determines that it is probable it will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

Amounts received prior to satisfying the revenue recognition criteria are recognized as deferred revenue in the Company’s balance sheet. Amounts expected to be recognized as revenue within the twelve months following the balance sheet date are classified as Current portion of deferred revenue. Amounts not expected to be recognized as revenue within the twelve months following the balance sheet date are classified as Deferred revenue, net of current portion.

License Revenues

The Company’s revenues have primarily been generated through licensing arrangements. The terms of these agreements typically include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: nonrefundable, up-front license fees; regulatory and commercial milestone payments; payments for manufacturing supply services; and royalties on net sales of licensed products. See Note 7.

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as it fulfills its obligations under each of its agreements, the Company performs the following steps:


identification of the promised goods or services in the contract;


determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract;


measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration;


allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and


recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.

The Company also assesses whether there is an option in a contract to acquire additional goods or services. An option gives rise to a performance obligation only if the option provides a material right to the customer that it would not receive without entering into that contract. Factors that the Company considers in evaluating whether an option represents a material right include, but are not limited to: (i) the overall objective of the arrangement, (ii) the benefit the collaborator might obtain from the arrangement without exercising the option, (iii) the cost to exercise the option (e.g. priced at a significant and incremental discount), and (iv) the likelihood that the option will be exercised. With respect to options determined to be performance obligations, the Company recognizes revenue when those future goods or services are transferred or when the options expire.


The Company’s revenue arrangements may include the following:


Up-front License Fees: If a license is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenues from nonrefundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.


Milestone Payments: At the inception of an agreement that includes regulatory or commercial milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether each milestone is considered probable of being achieved and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. At each reporting period, the Company assesses the probability of achievement of each milestone under its current agreements.


Research and Development Activities: Under the Company’s current collaboration and license arrangements, if the Company is entitled to reimbursement for costs for services provided by the Company, it expects such reimbursement would be an offset to research and development expenses.


Royalties: If the Company is entitled to receive sales-based royalties from its collaborator, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, provided the reported sales are reliably measurable, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).


Manufacturing Supply and Research Services: Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug substance or drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply at the licensee’s discretion are generally considered as options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the licensee and if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations.


The Company receives payments from its licensees based on schedules established in each contract. Upfront payments are recorded as deferred revenue upon receipt, and may require deferral of revenue recognition to a future period until the Company performs its obligations under these arrangements. Amounts are recorded as accounts receivable when the Company’s right to consideration is unconditional. The Company does not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between payment by the licensees and the transfer of the promised goods or services to the licensees will be one year or less.


Income Taxes

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, or ASC 740, which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.


The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position, as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. To date, the Company has not taken any uncertain tax position or recorded any reserves, interest or penalties.


Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other Internal Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. The amendments in this update align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard beginning in our quarter ending September 30, 2019.


In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, which provides the option to reclassify stranded tax effects within accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. This option would be available in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the TCJA (or a portion thereof) is recorded. This is effective for the Company beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. These amendments should be applied in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S federal corporate income tax rate in the TCJA is recognized. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires lessees to record most leases on their balance sheets and disclose key information about leasing arrangements in an effort to increase transparency and comparability among organizations. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within that reporting period. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach. The Company recognized a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability related to its operating leases as of the date of adoption. The Company elected to apply the package of practical expedients which allows entities not to reassess whether contracts are or contain leases, lease classification, and whether initial direct costs qualify for capitalization. The Company elected not to separate lease and non-lease components and will not apply the hindsight practical expedient. The adoption of this standard resulted in recording additional net lease assets and lease liabilities of approximately $5.7 million and $8.8 million, respectively. The standard did not materially impact our consolidated net earnings and had no impact on cash flows.


In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 is a comprehensive new revenue recognition model requiring a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to a customer in an amount reflecting the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Additionally, in March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, Principal versus Agent Considerations. ASU 2016-08 amends the principal versus agent guidance in ASU 2014-09 to clarify how an entity should identify the unit of accounting for the principal versus agent evaluation and how it should apply the control principal to certain types of arrangements. The effective date for both standards is January 1, 2018. The Company adopted these standards on January 1, 2018 and elected the modified retrospective transition method, meaning the cumulative effect of applying the new guidance, if any, was recognized at that date as an adjustment to the opening accumulated deficit balance. There was no impact to the Company’s financial statements upon adoption, as the Company did not have any contracts with customers as of the adoption date.


Recent Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The new guidance modifies the disclosure requirements related to fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, including removing certain previous disclosure requirements, adding certain new disclosure requirements, and modifying certain other disclosure requirements. The ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the effect this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.