Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2020
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the ASC and Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, of FASB. The Company’s functional currency is the U.S. dollar.

The financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments that are considered necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s balance sheets as of June 30, 2020, its results of operations and its comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, its statement of stockholders’ equity for the period from January 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020 and for the period January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019, and its statements of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019. The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and accompanying notes included in the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. Since the date of those financial statements, there have been no changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies. The financial data and other information

disclosed in these notes related to the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020, any other interim periods, or any future year or period.

We have been actively monitoring the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, situation and its impact globally. The financial results for the six months ended June 30, 2020, were not significantly impacted by COVID-19. Remote working arrangements and travel restrictions imposed by various jurisdictions have had limited impact on our ability to maintain operations during the quarter. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain, including as a result of new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain it or treat COVID-19.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience as well as other pertinent industry and regulatory authority information, including the potential future effects of COVID-19, the results of which form the basis for making judgements about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying amount of the Company’s financial instruments, which include cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, restricted cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values, given their short-term nature. The carrying amount of the Company’s loans payable at December 31, 2019 was the nominal value of the loan payable, net of debt discount and deferred charges. The nominal value approximated fair value because the interest rate was reflective of the rate the Company could obtain on debt with similar terms and conditions. Certain of the Company’s common stock warrants are carried at fair value, as disclosed in Note 3.

Leases

The Company adopted ASU 2016‑02, Leases (Topic 842), and all applicable amendments as of January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach. The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in long-term right-of-use assets and current and long-term lease liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. Right-of-use assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rates, which are the rates incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The right-of-use assets are tested for impairment according to ASC 360. See Note 6 for details. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; we recognize lease expense for these immaterial leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are accounted for as a single lease component under the practical expedient provisions of the standard. Lease payments, which may include lease and non-lease components, are included in the measurement of the Company’s lease liabilities to the extent that such payments are either fixed amounts or variable amounts that depend on a rate or index as stipulated in the lease contract.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, or ASC 740, which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets

and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position, as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. To date, the Company has not taken any uncertain tax position or recorded any reserves, interest or penalties.

On March 27, 2020, the U.S. government enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act.  The CARES Act makes the following changes to the U.S. tax code that will affect 2018, 2019 and 2020, including, but not limited to, (1) temporary modification of the adjusted taxable income limitation under Section 163(j) from 30% to 50% for tax years 2019 and 2020 only; (2) modification to the net operating loss rules surrounding the ability to now carryback five years net operating losses generated in 2018, 2019, and 2020; (3) temporary repeal of the net operating loss taxable income limitation of 80%; and (4) temporary enhancement of corporate charitable contribution limitation to 25% of taxable income for tax year 2020 only. There is no impact to the Company’s tax provision for the six months ended June 30, 2020 for these tax law changes.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The new guidance modifies the disclosure requirements related to fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, including removing certain previous disclosure requirements, adding certain new disclosure requirements, and modifying certain other disclosure requirements. The ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The effective date for both standards was January 1, 2020. The Company adopted these standards on January 1, 2020. There was no impact to the Company’s financial statements upon the adoption.

Recent Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which removed certain exceptions to the general principles of the accounting for income taxes and also improves consistent application of and simplification of other areas when accounting for income taxes. The guidance is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the effect this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.