Fair Value of Financial Instruments
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments|
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments||
3. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, or ASC 820, establishes a fair value hierarchy for instruments measured at fair value that distinguishes between assumptions based on market data (observable inputs) and the Company’s own assumptions (unobservable inputs). Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.
ASC 820 identifies fair value as the exchange price, or exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As a basis for
considering market participant assumptions in fair value measurements, ASC 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy that distinguishes among the following:
Level 1—Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access.
Level 2—Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active and models for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3—Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
To the extent that the valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash, and Marketable Securities
The following table presents the Company’s cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and marketable securities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
The Company classifies investments available to fund current operations as current assets on its balance sheets. As of December 31, 2020, the Company did not hold any investment securities exceeding a one-year maturity.
The Company maintains $1.3 million as collateral under a letter of credit for the Company’s facility lease obligations in Chesterbrook, Pennsylvania. The Company has recorded this deposit and accumulated interest thereon as restricted cash on its balance sheet.
Unrealized gains and losses on marketable securities are recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) included in stockholders’ equity. Realized gains (losses) are included in interest income (expense) in the statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) on a specific identification basis. The Company did not record any realized gains or losses on marketable securities during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. To date, the Company has not recorded any impairment charges on marketable securities related to other-than-temporary declines in market value.
Accretion of bond discount on marketable securities is included in other income as a separate component of other income (expense) on the statement of operations and comprehensive loss. Interest income on marketable securities is recorded as interest income on the statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company recognizes transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy as of the end of the reporting period. The Company does not hold material Level 3 securities, and therefore, there were no transfers in or out of Level 3 in the hierarchy during the years ended December 31, 2020 or 2019.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef