|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
12. Income Taxes
The Company provides for income taxes under ASC 740. Under ASC 740, the liability method is used in accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse.
The Company has not recorded a current or deferred income tax expense or benefit since its inception.
The Company's loss before income taxes was $50.5 million and $49.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and was generated entirely in the United States.
Deferred taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. The significant components of the Company's deferred tax assets are the following:
The Company has evaluated the positive and negative evidence bearing upon the realizability of its deferred tax assets. Based on the Company's history of operating losses since inception, the Company has concluded that it is more likely than not that the benefit of its deferred tax assets will not be realized. Accordingly, the Company has provided a full valuation allowance for deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2015 and 2014. The valuation allowance increased by $22.4 million and $22.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, due primarily to the generation of net operating losses during the periods.
A reconciliation of income tax expense computed at the statutory federal income tax rate to income taxes as reflected in the financial statements is as follows:
As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of $28.7 million and $22.8 million, respectively, which may be available to offset future income tax liabilities and will begin to expire at various dates starting in 2027. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company also had U.S. state net operating loss carryforwards of $28.7 million and $22.8 million, respectively, which may be available to offset future income tax liabilities and will begin to expire at various dates starting in 2027. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of $6.8 million and $4.7 million, respectively, available to reduce future tax liabilities which will begin to expire at various dates starting in 2027.
Under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, the net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the Internal Revenue Service and state tax authorities. Net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in the ownership interest of significant shareholders over a three-year period in excess of 50 percent, as defined under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code, respectively, as well as similar state provisions. This could limit the amount of tax attributes that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities. The amount of the annual limitation is determined based on the value of the Company immediately prior to the ownership change. Subsequent ownership changes may further affect the limitation in future years. The Company has completed several financings since its inception which may have resulted in a change in control as defined by Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code, or could result in a change in control in the future.
The Company will recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions and no amounts have been recognized in the Company's statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
For all years through December 31, 2015, the Company generated research credits but has not conducted a study to document the qualified activities. This study may result in an adjustment to the Company's research and development credit carryforwards; however, until a study is completed and any adjustment is known, no amounts are being presented as an uncertain tax position for these years. A full valuation allowance has been provided against the Company's research and development credits and, if an adjustment is required, this adjustment would be offset by an adjustment to the deferred tax asset established for the research and development credit carryforwards and the valuation allowance. The Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, enacted December 18, 2015, permanently extends the research and development credit. The Company recorded a credit of $2.4 million for 2015. The Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2014, enacted December 19, 2014, reinstated the research and development credit through December 31, 2014, and the Company recorded a credit of $1.8 million for 2014.
The Company files income tax returns in the United States, and various state jurisdictions. The federal and state income tax returns are generally subject to tax examinations for the tax years ended December 31, 2011 through December 31, 2014. To the extent the Company has tax attribute carryforwards, the tax years in which the attribute was generated may still be adjusted upon examination by the Internal Revenue Service or state tax authorities to the extent utilized in a future period.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef